Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Introduction Organizational change is one of the things that most organizations pass through as they develop over time. At times, the process of introducing change in the organizations is not always received well by most of the employees working in the organization (Poole Van, 2004). As such, this paper will look at some of the best entry points for organizational change, a summary of the similarities of the models used in carrying out he change process and reasons why implementing change is difficult. The paper will also address of the main reasons why people are resistant to change as well as the proper means of overcoming these obstacles. Reasons why those in human resource development positions are in a prime position to facilitate the change process There are a number of reasons why those in the human resource development positions are advantaged in the process of facilitating change in an organization. One of the reasons why this is so is founded on the fact that the human resource development takes a center role in carrying out development roles in an organization. The individuals do this by facilitating trainings that are considered to be of importance in any organization. Through these trainings, it gets easy to carry out any type of change that is important to the organization (Poole Van, 2004). Additionally, it is the human resource department that recruits new employees in an organization thus being in a position to use this as an avenue for carrying outShow MoreRelatedHuman Resource Management : Human Resources Development1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman resource management entails managing recruitment, pla nning, and implementing a selection of organizational development training within the business. The goals that the HRM has is maximizing the productivity of the workplace by improving the effectiveness of their employees while at one time improving and treating the work life of employees as valuable resources. Human resources development: To encompasses the efforts to promote personal development, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employee satisfaction, andRead MoreHuman Resource Development2731 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages1. Introduction of Study: Human Resource Development (HRD) at micro level or organizational level is a process by which employees of an organization are helped in systematic and continuous way to: Develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employees training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistanceRead MoreHuman Resources And Human Resource Development Essay1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHuman resource development is a broadly used term that refers to the helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities (The Balance. N.p.). The term has different connotations as it may refer to development of human capacities with the aim raising profit in business but also, especially in developing countries, with the aim of achieving personal and societal advancement (Cengage Learning, 2016.). Human resource development can be used by both public organizationsRead MoreThe Relationship Between Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development976 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe Relationship Between Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development Diana Williams National American University Understanding the Relationship Between Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development Human resource management (HRM) is the umbrella under which all other human resource activities are found. Some of the major activities under the umbrella are: benefits and compensation, health safety and security, human resource planning, staffing, equal employmentRead MoreHuman Resource Development : Hrd1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman resource development well known as HRD, is a rough draft for helping employees mature their individual and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development contains many opportunities for Ã¢â¬Å"employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance, and organization development.Ã¢â¬ Human resources take the part of a vital role in developing a businessÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreHuman Resource Development7684 Words Ã |Ã 31 PagesResearch Article focuses on the analysis and resolution of managerial issues based on analytical and empirical studies. A Study of HRD Concepts, Structure of HRD Departments, and HRD Practices in India T V Rao, Raju Rao, and Taru Yadav Human Resource Development (HRD) as a function has evolved in India indigenously from the year 1975 when LarsenToubro (LT) conceptualized HRD as an integrated system and decided to separate it from the personnel function. Since then, most organizations have startedRead MoreHuman Resource Development : China1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe emergence of PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China in the last two decades has been remarkable. This paper will analyse and review the procedures which led to human resource development (HRD) in China. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most populous nation with an abundance of manpower availability. The human resources in China were under-utilized because of many reasons. Since China got independence in 1949 till late 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, they followed a highly centralized economic planning system, unlike theRead MoreHuman Resource Planning And Development1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHuman resource is an important aspect in every organizatio n and none can exist without it. Therefore, the human resource department is charged with the role of hiring, training and development as well as payroll management among other staff related activities. The human resource objectives must be aligned with the overall organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives in order to avoid conflict of interests. Consequently, it is important to develop a strategic plan which encompasses the various factors that are involvedRead MoreHuman Resource Management ( Hrm ) And Human Resources Development Essay882 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLeadership in Human Resource Management (HRM) and Human Resource Development (HRD) have strong associations to people based initiatives within an organization. Employee actions and behaviors are inÃ¯ ¬âuenced by HRM practices such as stafÃ¯ ¬ ng, evaluation of employees, and incentives or rewards, and HRD practices such as training and career development. HRM is tasked with making the best possible use of the organizations humanÃ resources, while HRD is an extension of HRM that focuses on the development of theRead MoreDevelopment Of Human Resource Management Essay1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReview Ã¢â¬Å"Thirty-two years of development of human resource management in China: Review and prospectsÃ¢â¬ (Shuming Zhao, Juan Du, 2012) is a journal paper that concentrating on the hypothetical advancements and practical applications of HRM, it first audits the move of HRM in China from planned labor force allocation to current HR management in three particular eras since China s reformation and opening-up. After, it analyzes and discusses the difficulties of human resource management research and its
Friday, May 15, 2020
Balancing a College Life Just when I thought I was done with one of the most stressful parts of my life, college happened and it got even more intense. School is stressful, but throw in an afterschool job and a social life, and studying is just hard to manage. Freshman year of college might be one of the most stressful years for students. The fact that they are living on their own for the first time is terrifying for most freshman. Parents are not there to do everything for them. It is a lot to handle when they are only eighteen. It takes a while to find a balance, but eventually they will find a solution. Everyone is different so there is a solution for everybody. It just depends on what kind of schedule he or she has. Students shouldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦After reading part of what the president of Colorado State University Campus said it helps to provide the first solution. The first solution is time management. Time management is something not everyone can perfect. There are adults today who still cannot manage their busy schedule. The best way to do this is to figure out what the students plan is for that particular day or week and figure when or where they need to be in order for them to make sure everything they need to do is done. This all starts with what time they have to get ready to begin their day. What time are they going to wake up? Do they need to make room for homework and studying? Do they have to go to work today? What else needs to be done? These questions should be asked in order to plan more efficiently. If they have an hour in between that could be used for eating, studying, or napping. If students are busy and have free time they should take advantage of it and try to get their homework done or study for an upcoming test or quiz. The second solution is learning how to multi-task. This is where students learn to be experts at doing multiple things at once. There is a right way to multi-task and a wrong way. The obvious wrong way would be driving while trying to finish breakfast, and study for a test that is scheduled for your first class. In order to properly multi-task students need to switch their focus constantly. The first thing students should do is make a to-do list. TheShow MoreRelatedPublic Education Has Negatively Affected Children1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn his article for the National Review, Stanley Kurtz, who holds a Ph. D. in social anthropology from Harvard, recounts that the College Board has Ã¢â¬Å"effectively set itself up as a national school boardÃ¢â¬ by replacing Ã¢â¬Å"brief guidelines that once allowed states, school districts, and teachers to present U.S. history as they saw fitÃ¢â¬ . In nationalizing the curricula, the College Board has minimized the power of local school distri cts, teachers, and states. This total control by a single entity causes theRead MoreThe Importance Of A Early Brain Development Essay2180 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesresidential college for university students in a metropolitan setting, established in 1952. Much of what I discuss will be derived from personal observations and statements or statistics collated by the Dean . 168 students (89 females and 79 males) approximately aged from 17 to 26 years of age, each from differing backgrounds reside in this community. 16% of residents are international whilst 42% originate from interstate and approximately 20% speak native languages other than English. The college is operatedRead MoreAssess the Impact of Key Influences on the Personal Learning Processes on Own Learning.3399 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagescoursework at college difficult due to noise and the distractions around me. Health problems can have a negative effect on me because if I was very physically ill, I would not have the energy to be a ble to do coursework. Also, if I was seriously ill and had to go to the hospital for treatment, I would have to miss out on college work unless someone brought it into the hospital for me. Family can also influence my learning. This is because family is one of the most important things in my life. My familyRead MoreJamie Turner at Mli, Inc. Harvard Business Brief Case6420 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesTHOMAS MORE COLLEGE ACCELERATED DEGREE PROGRAM MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MGT-MBA 611: MANAGEMENT, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND DESIGN Participant Module MBA Cohort 72 Rob Harris Eddie Ostriecher August 2012 Thomas More College MGT 611 Course structure and grading policies Course Description The goal of this course is to introduce students to the MBA program through the study of various instrumental techniques and management concepts. Students will learn writing and research requirementsRead More Universities Must Continue with the Race-sensitive Admissions Process3209 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesheadlines and public forums demand educational reform with growing frequency. Race-sensitive admissions policies are often at the center of these debates. For example, according to the Los Angeles Times on March 21, 2001, the Los Angeles Community College district trustees are scheduled to vote for a resolution to support the University of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s move to reinstate affirmative action in its admissions policies. This reinstatement has visible student support as seen in the March 15, 2001 ralliesRead MoreNew World Or Gattaca Style Dystopic Future Development Of Effective Prevention And Treatment Strategies For A Great3494 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesadvocates. I will begin with a brief overview of the traditional arguments in favor of reproductive liberty and a more permissive stance toward the use of genetic technology. This will include a discussion of autonomy as the underlying ethical principle at work, and the related focus on informed consent as both a guiding axiom and common target of criticism. The principle of beneficence is a crucial underlying assumption, which will be addressed along with the brief presentation of disability studiesRead MoreComparison and Contrast Essay7914 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pagesunderstand each part and complete all the practical exercises before moving into another part. By the end of the module, you should be able to put all the parts together for the final product Ã¢â¬â a complete well-written comparison and contrast essay. NOTES Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make sure to use and/or consult all other sources suggested in the module to complement your writing skills (internet links, documents, references, and others). This is very important in order to achieve better results! Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make sure to complete theRead MoreHISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA6273 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesHISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA COURSE OUTLINE 1. Concept and Rationale of History of education 2. A Brief History of Education in Ancient Greek and Roman Empire 3. African Indigenous System of Education/African Traditional Education 4. Islamic Education in Nigeria 5. Christian Missionary/Western Education in Nigeria 6. Nigerian Education Since 1960 THE CONCEPT OF EDUCATION There seems to be no universally accepted definition of the word Ã¢â¬ËeducationÃ¢â¬â¢. But this is not peculiar with educationRead MoreExamination of the Newborn Essay5924 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pages1995, Hall, 1999) and also to identify any apparent physical abnormality (Buston and Durward 2001). However the question that we may wish to consider is Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is normal in a neonatal who is undergoing major physiological adaptations to extra uterine life (Blackburn and Loper, 1993) ? How as midwives can we fulfil this expectation of norm, when there is, as Hall (1999) suggests no confirmation of normality available ? Nevertheless a thorough search of the literature suggests that the neonatal examinationRead MoreRestaurant Operation Management5805 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pageshave always been a significant part in our lives, as dining out is now a favourite and unavoidable social activity. Everyone likes to enjoy being surrounded with good food in the pleasant company of friends, which thu s making eat-out became a way of life for us as when can see more meals are eaten out than being taken at home. Having to realise the importance of this foodservice industry as it serves to fulfil one of the most basic needs in human being, all restaurants entrepreneurs are striving
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Virginia Woolfs Mrs Dalloway is a modernist novel, which shows new techniques to express a different point of view with regard to the notion of time. It is not without importance to note that the novel has no chapter headings. Nevertheless it is immediately obvious that the interest of the novel is not only in the form but also in the content. The action takes place in a single day of June in 1923 and what is interesting in the structure of the book is that simultaneously with the story of this single day, time is constantly flowing from present to past or to future. These flashbacks constitute the major psychological moments of the novel, most of them being represented by the stream of consciousness technique. This essay will explain howÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(p.3; my emphasis) In a manner that she will sustain throughout the novel, the narrator conveys memory and present action to us simultaneously and ambiguously. Which she could hear now refers, ostensibly, to the squeak of the hinges at Bourton in Clarissas memory. Yet now implies the moment of her plunge into the street, suggesting a kind of reverie. The later phrase, for a girl of eighteen as she then was is similarly disorienting. It locates the time of Clarissas bursting open the windows of Bourton, but it also implies that, through her memory, she has become eighteen again. The then contrasts with the earlier now, but neither refers concretely to its own relative time. And finally, Clarissas thinking of Peter Walsh proves that the flow of thoughts is achronological, because she mixes the vision of him now and as he was thirty years before. Furthermore, she is allusive when she remembers what he said; she is trying to reconstruct the past. It must be admitted that this kind of memories are almost omnipresent throughout the novel and get mixed up with the present moment. However the most pertinent fact in these memories of Bourton is Clarissas refusal to marry Peter Walsh. She is constantly thinking of this. In the flow of her thoughts, Clarissa shows the difficulty of this choice: Now I remember how impossible it was ever to make up my mind - and why did I make up my mind - not to marry him, she wondered, that awfulShow MoreRelated The Importance of Time in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway Essay1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Importance of Time in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway We live in a consumer society consuming time. We use time to function smoothly but also to channel the direction of our lives. As a college student, I am constantly aware of time. I have a time frame for finishing my college career, as well as constant deadlines to meet. Daily, I divide my hours between my job, my studies, and my friends. In the midst of following external time, I strive for a balance with my internal time. My personalRead MoreComparing The Film And Virginia Woolf s Mrs. Dalloway1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDespite the fact that suicides feature in both the film and Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Mrs Dalloway, both texts echo WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s words from her 1922 diary: Ã¢â¬ËI meant to write about death, only life came breaking in as usual.Ã¢â¬â¢ Both WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s modernist 1925 novel and DaldryÃ¢â¬â¢s 2002 postmodernist film which has Mrs Dalloway as a pivotal point for its three interwoven stories can be seen as life-affirming texts Ã¢â¬â with their major focu s on women whose rich inner lives are juxtaposed with their outer lives constrainedRead More The Social/Economic Upper-Class in England in Mrs. Dalloway, Sense and Sensibility, and The Picture of Dorian Gray1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEngland in Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s Mrs. Dalloway, Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Sense and Sensibility, and Oscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Picture of Dorian Gray are depicted through the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ lifestyles, wealth, and behaviors. Woolf, Austen, and Wilde give insightful portrayals of the characters by emphasizing their social roles in the England society. Their portrayals of the characters suggest that they are critical of the upper-classÃ¢â¬â¢ factitious lifestyles. Members of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s social/economic upper-class in WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s, AustenÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Central Value Connecting Mrs. Dalloway And The Hours1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The central value connecting Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is an affirmation of life. Although suicides feature in both Stephen DaldryÃ¢â¬â¢s film and Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s novel both texts echo WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s words from her 1922 diary: Ã¢â¬ËI meant to write about death, only life came breaking in as usual.Ã¢â¬â¢ Both WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s modernist 1925 novel and DaldryÃ¢â¬â¢s 2002 postmodernist film focus on women whose rich inner lives are juxtaposed with their outer lives constrained by the contexts in which they live. The characters areRead MoreMrs. Dalloway Paper1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMrs. Dalloway Paper Mrs. Dalloway, by Virginia Woolf, was written in 1925, a time filled with many large changes to civilization. The book was written and set right after the biggest war human-kind can remember which killed millions of people, during the peak of industrialization which caused the mass production of items and created thousands of new inventions, while modernist arts and thoughts were growing and, and when national pride was very large for the citizens of the Allied countries in WorldRead MoreAnalysis of Mrs. Dalloway by Ãâ" Virginia Woolf Essay1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnalysis of Mrs. Dalloway by Ãâ" Virginia Woolf Mrs. Dalloway, published in 1925, is a romantic drama with deep psychological approaching in to the world of urban English society in the summer of 1923, five years after the end of World War I. The book begins in the morning with the arrangements for a party Clarissa Dalloway will give and it ends late in the evening when the guests are all leaving. There are many flashbacks to tell us the past of each character, but it does not leave the range ofRead MoreMrs. Dalloway, by Virginia Woolf1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the novel Mrs. Dalloway, by Virginia Woolf, the author uses narrative techniques of stream of consciousness and interior monologue in order to depict the workings of an Ã¢â¬Å"ordinaryÃ¢â¬ or normal mind in narrative form. She also rejects the conventional structure of Ã¢â¬ËchaptersÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to give an Ã¢â¬Å"ordinaryÃ¢â¬ portrayal of the mind. This essay will firstly contextualise the extract for analysis, namely the opening scene in the novel. This will be followed by defining the narrative techniques that is depictedRead MoreThe Hours - Film Analysis12007 Words Ã |Ã 49 PagesThe Suicide of the Author and his Reincarnation in the Reader: Int ertextuality in The Hours by Michael Cunningham Andrea Wild In his novel The Hours, Michael Cunningham weaves a dazzling fabric of intertextual references to Virginia Woolfs works as well as to her biography. In this essay, I shall partly yield to the academic itch to tease out the manifold and sophisticated allusions to the numerous intertexts. My aim, however, is not to point out every single reference to Woolf and her works--suchRead MoreThe Great Divide By John Woolf And Forster s Howard s End 960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespresent during the time in England on the cusp of High Modernism. The importance of connections with others was one that was specifically addressed in much of the literature. E.M. Forster even highlighted the idea in his novel Ã¢â¬Å"HowardÃ¢â¬â¢s EndÃ¢â¬ with the epigraph Ã¢â¬Å"only connectÃ¢â¬ . The idea supports the notion that, in order for a society to survive and thrive, some degree of connection must be adequately maintained. Yet, through the stratification of social classes in England at the time, there was littleRead MoreMrs Dalloway1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnalysis of Mrs. Dalloway Ãâ" Virginia Woolf Mrs. Dalloway, published in 1925, is a romantic drama with deep psychological approaching in to the world of urban English society in the summer of 1923, five years after the end of World War I. The book begins in the morning with the arrangements for a party Clarissa Dalloway will give and it ends late in the evening when the guests are all leaving. There are many flashbacks to tell us the past of each character, but it does not leave the range of those
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Economics Solutions for Product Differentiation. Answer: Introduction: Product differentiation is the general marketing of products by creating minor variations from other products which are used by customers while making a choice. In economics or marketing, product differentiation is utilized in distinguishing a specific product from another which may be functionally same, but the differentiation helps in attracting customers which helps the firm gain economic profits. As a product becomes more attractive to the customers, if product differentiation is done effectively it can generate competitive advantage for the product because it becomes finer or unique in the eyes of the customers (Varian, 2010). Types and sources of product differentiation: Product differentiation can be of various types starting from just making changes in the styling or packaging of the product, to making changes in prices because of lower costs or changes in functional features of the product. The basic objective of such differentiation is to change the perspective of the customer towards a particular product compared to another product. There are generally three types of product differentiation namely: Simple, Horizontal and Vertical. Simple product differentiation is based on different characteristics. Horizontal and Vertical are opposites in nature where horizontal product differentiation is based on one single feature but the consumer cannot differentiate the product with higher quality whereas in case of vertical, it is also differentiation on the basis son one feature but the consumer can differentiate. Product differentiation arises from various sources. The main sources are: When the non-functional features of a product are highlighted in contrast to another product even though there functional features are same then that kind of a differentiation is called non-functional in nature. This can be done by bringing styling changes of the product, or its color, or with very unique advertising. Sometimes lower cost in the production of one product with the same functions of another helps the producer in offering a lower selling price which acts as a lower cost or pricing differentiation Differences based on location or time which creates a differentiation in availability of he product (Boundless Economics) When buyers overlook essential features or quality of the product it also creates a sort of differentiation Analysis Of Product Differentiation: Product differentiation also helps in creating brand loyalty towards a particular brand which is preferred particularly by customers because of its unique design or outlook. If a firm is successful in making the consumer highly desire the product then the demand for the product rises which helps the consumer sell at a higher price and hence brings in economic profits for the consumer. A good example for product differentiation can be the market for mobile phones like the differentiation strategies adopted by Apple to differentiate its very famous i-phone from other phones. Apple uses various product differentiation strategies to differentiate i-phone from other mobile phones. Such strategies involve both functional as well as non-functional and is very much evident that they have been successful in changing the perspective of consumers towards i-phone making it more attractive and highly demanded which in turn allows Apple to charge higher prices. Apple uses all kinds of non-pricing strategies through advertising, marketing, unique design, functional features being unique, etc. Apple being an imperfective competitive firm has been successful in creating competitive advantage (Hanks, 2016). It is very much common to ask that such imperfective firms can easily charge a lower price and take over the market but it wouldnt do something like that because it involves the decrease in profits due to lower revenues. How product differentiation help is through affecting the demand curve of the market. A firm gains some sort of pricing power in the market. With differentiation the firm makes the product more preferred by the customers and hence with price changes customers become less likely to divert away from the product thus making the demand curve more inelastic in nature. With inelastic demand curve the price rises at the same quantity making the firm earn more profits. As we see in the figure below for a firm in an imperfective competition the profit maximizing output is attained at price=marginal cost or P=MC. Hence, in part (a) of the figure we see that the demand curve is elastic. Profit maximizing output is Q as there P=MC and ATC which is the average total cost is below the average revenue curve which brings the firm economic profits (Pindyck et al, 2009). Now in the part (b) of the figure we see that the demand curve becomes steeper implying it becomes inelastic which raises the price further bringing the firm more profits at the same quantity of Q. The red shaded region the diagrams show the profit earned by the firm. Conclusion: Hence we see how product differentiation helps big firms attract more customers and gain profits in future. By making minuscule functional or non-functional features in styling, packaging or design of products, producer can make customers desire the product more, increasing the demand for product, making the demand curve inelastic and increasing the price which further increases the profits. Differentials In Wages Across Industries/Ocupations And Within Industries/Occupations Introduction: Wages are monetary compensations or the remuneration that the employer pays the employee on getting a job done. It can be some sort of gross or annual pay or including bonuses, commissions but excluding shift differentials or profit payments. Wages across individuals or occupations differ a lot. These wage differentials can be within the same industry whereas also can exist across the industries. It is comparatively easy for us to apply our common sense to realize that different occupations do have different wages as all individuals do not possess the same set of skills and credentials and labor demand and supply acts as a crucial component in fixing different wages of different occupations (Piana, 2001). But if we consider difference in wages of individuals within the same industry then economics concepts do not completely justify the phenomenon. This happens because when such wage differentials are considered then one has to distinguish two workers based on various other criteria which do not relate to economic concepts completely. Wages between two workers in the same occupation can be due to a number of reasons staring from the skill sets of each worker, their innate abilities, working conditions, geographical regions as well as human capital acquisition (Sowell, 2010). Types Of Wage Differentials: The top 5 cause of wage differentials are: Occupational differences: In this case occupations in an organization are very much different from each other based on skill requirements, period of employment requirements and extent of responsibility. Differences within occupations boost and challenge people to work harder to attain greater higher paying occupations by developing through high level education or training. For example the salary of a manager is higher than that of the junior officers or assistants because the manager has attained higher degree of education experience. Jobs with high skilled labor have more inelastic demand and supply curves compared to jobs with lower skilled labor (Sikder, 2006). This happens because high skilled laborers helps in bringing more profit for the organization and have high qualifications whereas low skilled workers do not have high qualification are many in number and with low marginal revenue product as they may not bring higher profits for the firm (Spaulding, 2016). As we see below t he demand and supply curves of higher skilled and low skilled workers with the former receiving higher wages than the latter. Inter-firm differentials: In the same area or occupation there can be wage differences in between different plants, etc. These differences are based on the quality of labor, labor market imperfections and equipment efficiency differences along with technological advancement, financial capability, size and age of firm, managerial efficiency, raw material availability, etc. Regional differences: Wages also differ between workers of the same occupation but different geographical areas. This happens because differences in working conditions, that are prevalent based on the different regions. Inter-industry differences: Workers of same occupation, same region but of different industries also face wage differentials. These wage differences occur because of the differences in skill requirements, nature of the product market, level of unionization, etc. Personal wage differences: Workers of same occupation can have difference in wages because of the difference in the personal characteristics of the workers. As reported by Elka Torpey in a report that in May 2014 the top earning 10% of athletes and sports competitors earned more than $187200 cutoff whereas the lowest earning 10% of athletes were seen to have annual wages even less than $20190 which is even sufficiently less than the median wage of $35540 for all in the occupations (Torpey, 2015). These differences are based on the innate abilities or skill sets of the workers which the worker may naturally possess or had gained expertise in being more efficient than the other workers. Compensating wage differentials: When jobs in the same industry differ as one asks for more risk taking or working for longer hours which pays the worker more than the one which does not have such requirements. This is in form of compensation to the worker. We know demand supply mechanisms in the labor market may give rise to occupational wage differentials as for certain occupation the demand may be much higher leading to higher prices whereas for some it may be lower leading to higher wages. The demand for labor is a derived demand in the sense that its demand is derived from the demand of the good or service the worker has expert skills in (Mankiw, 2007). Causes Giving Rise To Wage Differentials: We saw the types of wage differentials above and we see that there are many reasons which give rise to wage differentials and these maybe beyond the scope of economics. These reasons are: Qualifications or credentials: Individuals with higher educational degrees earn more than the ones not possessing such credentials. Experience: A workers experience is a crucial determinant of his wage. No wonder a senior analyst with much more experience is paid much higher than a junior analyst with not that much of experience (Lipsey at al, 2011) Specific job responsibilities: Jobs with more complex tasks are paid higher than the ones which are comparatively simpler. These tasks imposes greater responsibility on the worker and simultaneously demand expert skills from the worker hence paying him more Trade unionization: As trade unions collectively possess a bargaining power they can negotiate with employers to earn higher wages. (Economics Online) Success and Performance: A person who is more efficient, had been performing well with a good track record and had been successful to get a job in a particular industry which has very small supply of such high skilled workers can easily earn much higher than others. Revenue creation: Workers more productive and the ones who can earn higher revenues for the firm are paid higher by the organization Discrimination: Employer discrimination also can be included in this list as discrimations between genders by organizations and industries had been an influencing factor to create wage differentials between men and women of the same occupation (Riley, 2016) Human capital acquisition: employers also reward workers who devote in acquisitation of higher educational degrees or trainings which may be part time or full time (Samuelson et al, 2010). Conclusion: Hence we saw, that how various factors create the different types of wage differentials. If we focus on the rationale behind wage differentials we find that there are two views. Firstly, we consider the socialistic patterns of the society and government here plays the role of minimizing inequalities in incomes as well as wealth distribution so that the society as a whole develops boosting the economic growth through the channels of higher quality human capital and getting more jobs done with increase in aggregate demand and income. Secondly, wage differentials get their justification through the wide demand supply mismatches in the labor market. The differences here are based on skill requirements, ability, knowledge, aptitude, experience and also the derived demand of the particular labor. Another justification given in support of wage differentials is the full natural resources exploitation (Chand, 2016). References: Lipsey, R Chrystal, A 2011, Economics, Oxford, New Delhi Sowell, T 2010, Basic economics, Basic books, USA Mankiw, G 2003, Macroeconomics, Worth publishers, New York Sikdar, S 2006, Principles of macroeconomics, Oxford, New Delhi Pindyck, R, Rubinfeld, D Mehta, P 2009, Microeconomics, Pearson, South Asia Boundless Economics, 2016, Product differentiation, viewed 31 August 2016, https://www.boundless.com/economics/textbooks/boundless-economics-textbook/monopolistic-competition-12/monopolistic-competition-75/product-differentiation-281-12378/ Riley, G, 2016, Labor market-wage differentials, viewed 31 August 2016, https://www.tutor2u.net/economics/reference/labour-market-wage-differentials Spaulding, W, 2016, Wage differentials, viewed 31 August 2016, https://thismatter.com/economics/wage-differentials.htm Economics Online, 2016, Labor Market, viewed 31 August 2016, https://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Competitive_markets/The_labour_market.html Piana, V, 2001, Wages, viewed 31 August 2016, https://www.economicswebinstitute.org/glossary/wages.htm Torpey, E, 2015, Same occupation Different pay: How wages vary, viewed 31 August, 2016, https://www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2015/article/wage-differences.htm Samuelson, P Nordhaus, W 2010, Economics, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi Mankiw, G 2007, Economics: principles and applications, Cengage learning, New Delhi Hanks, G, 2016, Apple Pricing strategy, viewed 1 August 2016, https://www.ehow.com/way_5815745_apple-differentiation-strategy.html Chand, S, 2016, Top 5 causes of wage differentials, viewed 1 August 2016, https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/hrm/jobs/top-5-causes-of-wage-differentials-explained/35339/ Varian, H 2010, Intermediate microeconomics, Affiliated East-West Press, New Delhi
Monday, April 13, 2020
My chosen retailer is Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay which is a company owned by South African entrepreneur Raymond Ackerman in 1967. Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay was able to gain a large share of the market because Raymond AckermanÃ¢â¬â¢s policy of putting offering customers the best value for their money before profit maximisation and various social responsibility programmes have made them a household in South Africa. Question 1 Pick n Pay bridges the following gaps: * Space. * Time. * Information. The space and time, value gaps are bridged by pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ pay, by establishing what the market really wants and providing consumer what they want at the right price in the right environment. -Information on products is readily available in stores during promotions and generally accessible in store. -Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay offers financial services like credit on large purchases like appliances. -Through bridging these gaps Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay has been able to establish long term relationship with consumers. We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing Assignment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Question 2 An organisation has to perform its primary amp; auxiliary marketing activities efficiently and in a timely manner to ensure that the needs/ of the customer are met. Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay also owns its own transportation fleet so they have more control over meeting demand on time. * Pick n Pay conducted detailed market research in order to properly serve its market as all store formats are as diverse as the geographic area they operate in, from the large hypermarkets to the express stores in petrol stations, they cater to all different market segments. Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay also own Boxer supermarkets which cater to low income groups such as rural areas. * They form of standardisation and grading is their policy of giving consumers double their money back on Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay products if they not satisfied with the quality, This policy enabled Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢Pay to gain the trust of consumer which translates into Customer loyalty. All other products offered by Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay have to follow certain regulations before being offered to the public. Pay has to take the necessary steps to ensure that products like fruits are available all year round which means such products need to be stored in fridges and other products have to be stored properly so they donÃ¢â¬â¢t get damage before getting to the actual store so they donÃ¢â¬â¢t incur any losses. * The risk of loss or damage is to be mitigated by the form of having insurance policy to cover the business. * Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay borrows money from banks to cover the day-to-day operations; Raymond Ackerman says many businesses that were destined for greatness failed because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough cash to run their daily operations. I would say Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay uses the societal marketing-oriented concept because of their environmental initiatives which have even gained the organisation a Sunday Times Top Brand Grand Prix award for the company that did the most to promote Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ issues and social upliftment of communities. Raymond Ackerman stresses the importance of doing Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ business which means implementing sustainable practices in the work environment and doing what the business is obligated to do in terms of social responsibility. Here are some environmental initiatives have introduced: * Green Products- Products that are 100% recyclable with active ingredients that are made from sustainable,natural ingredients. * Introduced limited edition eco-friendly bags to limit the use of plastic bags * Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay vehicles use a low sulphur content diesel and ozone-friendly lubrication oils. * Setting up recycling points at Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay stores * In 2009 they opened up 3 Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay express stores, starting a new era of green retailing. These type strategies will gain the business long term customers because of its awareness of contributing positively to the environment. Question 4 I would say my chosen retailer has evolved to this level because they the good relationship it has with its stakeholder thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they have been able to offer the market such good prices and within any business you need to maintain good relationship with your suppliers for example, this would ensure that everything is delivered in a timely time and with your employees to ensure that their product are product and know whatÃ¢â¬â¢s expected of them. Pick n Pay has a number of policies and guidelines to govern relationships with its stakeholders so every interaction with its stakeholders is morally sound and is in line with the correct practices so that customers are satisfied and customers are retained. Question 5 5. 1 The micro environment of Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay is its internal stakeholders which would be: * Employees * Investors * Management The business has full control over this environment. The market environment is the outside of the business and the business can only control this environment to a certain degree. The market environment comprises of: * Suppliers * Competitors- Checkers,Spar,Woolworths. * Customers * General Public Ã¢â¬â Brand Perception and Brand awareness. 5. 2 Pick n Pay is a company that focuses a lot on physical environment and socio economic issues as it recognises the importance of sustainability practices in its business due to the fact that natural resources are not available in infinite quantities and the damage us humans are doing to the environment. Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay has also implemented programmes that challenge socio economic issues such as unemployment. Here some the changes and programmes implemented to adapt to changes/trends in the macro environment: * Setting up recycling points at Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ pay which in turn provides employment. * Ã¢â¬Å"GreenÃ¢â¬ products Ã¢â¬â 100% recyclable products with natural active ingredients that donÃ¢â¬â¢t harm the environment. * BEE programmes which allows people from disadvantaged backgrounds to own a Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay franchise store. * Pick nÃ¢â¬â¢ Pay company also recently extended its Ã¢â¬ËGreen RangeÃ¢â¬â¢ of household products to include garbage bags made from 100% recycled material, 70% of which is post-consumer recycled materials.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Solomon's Temple Essays - Books Of Kings, Holy Of Holies, Yom Kippur Solomon's Temple Introduction Looking back at some of the earliest years of Gods chosen people, we can see that worship played quite a significant role in the everyday lives of the people. Until the temple in Jerusalem was built, there was no real establishment or unification of the people since their captivity to Egypt. Solomon, one of Israels first few kings, built the Temple of Jerusalem. Solomons Temple was believed to be the dwelling place of God. The Temple was a very complex structure, and because of its destruction there is no abundance of information upon its exact design. Therefore, most of the information that we have today is taken from the books of Kings and also from the books of Chronicles in the Holy Bible. In this paper, the Biblical references come from a New King James Version of the Holy Bible. In this paper we will examine the history behind Solomons Temple, its structure, and its downfall. A Brief Introduction to Solomons Temple In the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel came out of Egypt, Solomon built the Temple. The building of Solomons temple lasted seven years. The completion of the temple was in the eleventh year of Solomons reign. Although it underwent many changes and renovations, Solomons temple stood for nearly four centuries until its destruction in 586 BC. The temple was considered to be a divine presence; it included such things as the ark, the cherubim, and on very rare occasions a statue of Yahweh. It also contained objects used in Gods service such as the table of shewbread, and a lampstand. The altar was not included with the temple building but in an open court adjoining the temple. The format of the temple is laid out in the books of Kings and also in Chronicles. Solomons temple was designed to be a more magnificent shrine than any other in the land, one benefiting the wealth and splendor of the king himself. The History Behind The Temple The Temple was not built until the reign of Solomon, but significant steps had already been taken. To see this, we must first look at the life of David, the second chosen king of Israel and also Solomons father. David ruled as king for seven years, and he then established his throne in Jerusalem after overcoming the ancient Jebusite community that was there. His reign continued in Jerusalem for the next thirty-two years. David contemplated the erection of a shrine for the Ark of the Covenant. At first the prophet Nathan gave David approval to construct a temple, but the following night God intervened. Speaking to Nathan in a dream, God laid out for David an amazing covenant, which would establish the house of David forever. He also told Nathan of the temple that was to be built. Although David was not allowed to build the Temple, he amassed the means for the temple to be built. The task was to be given to his son, Solomon. After the death of his father David, Solomon issued the orders for the building of the First Temple to commence. The building of the Temple was a monumental task and in the four hundred and eightieth year after the people of Israel came out of Egypt, the construction began. This was in the fourth year of Solomons reign over Israel. In the fourth year of construction the foundation of the Temple was laid. Then the building of the House of God began. The Temples Structure The Temple was essentially a rectangular building erected on a platform, orientated east and west. It consisted of a porch (ulam) and two chambers, one behind the other (hekal and debir). The measurements of the Temple are given in cubits, with one cubit being approximately twenty inches. Within Solomons temple the cherubim and ark were contained in the inner sanctum; one table , a lampstand and an altar of incense in the outer sanctum; and a burnt-offering altar and water containers in the court. The Temple proper consisted of a porch beyond which was a large chamber, later called the Holy Place, and beyond this a smaller inner shrine, or the Holy of Holies, into which the ark was brought.
Monday, February 24, 2020
Conduct an interview with an Informatics Professional - Essay Example Therefore, although companies differ in the way they use this term, CSO is increasingly used to refer to the highest ranked person responsible for the entire security of an organization, that is, both physical and digital (CSO, 2008). This paper, through interviewing a person working in this position, investigates the roles, responsibilities, qualifications, background, experience and challenges facing chief security officers. The telephone interview involved Mr. Anthony Gacanja who is the current CSO of Safaricom Kenya, a major network provider company in Kenya. Mr. Anthony Gacanja is currently the Chief Security Officer at Safaricom Kenya. He did his O level at St. MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s School Nairobi and holds a bachelor degree in Bsc. Electrical and Electronics Engineering (majoring in Telecommunication) from Nairobi University. Before joining Safaricom, he worked as a Manger of Technology Security and Risk Services in Ernst and Young and also as an Application Systems Developer at Software Technologies Limited. He has vast experience in IT consultancy and information systems assurance and audit. Besides holding a bachelor degree, Mr. Gacanja is also passed his exams both in Certified Information System Auditor (CISA) and Certified Information Security Manager (CISM). When asked about the main roles and responsibilities of a CSO, Mr. Gacanja said that a CSO has several duties and responsibilities depending on the company he or she is working with. However, although he accepted that these duties and responsibilities may vary from one organization to another, he points out a common aim for all CSOs is to ensure good security to an organization and work force. He gave the following as the main roles of any CSO in any organization: On qualification, Mr. Gacanja said that any individual who wishes to be a chief security officer must have a strong knowledge of security related concepts and excellent contacts